the gallic wars by julius caesar summary

They buy cattle, expand crop production, and establish peaceful relations with neighboring tribes. After the rebuff, they contact a friend of the tribe, Dumnorix, a powerful Aeduan chieftain. After his decision is made, scouts report that three-quarters of the Helvetian troops have crossed the Arar (Saone) river and that the remaining quarter is ready to cross, heavily loaded with supplies. Caesar then assigns the loyal Gaul, Diviciacus, to study the route and he accepts a suggested fifty-mile detour so as to travel through open country. It is well to remember while reading the Commentaries that Caesar is writing them to be read by Roman citizens far removed from the local Gallic problems and, for that reason, they are often full of repetition of what is seemingly the obvious. Notice while reading the Gallic Wars that he usually keeps units in reserve to assist Romans in difficulty or to take advantage of an unexpected opportunity. And, since it is a natural geographic stronghold and since Ariovistus is three more days of marching ahead, Caesar orders night and day forced marching to reach Vesontio. It is noteworthy, therefore, that Caesar frequently requests and uses reports concerning enemy customs and beliefs to gain cooperation or to win a battle. Ariovistus obviously is a successful conqueror, as is Caesar, and is proud of his successes, conscious of his rank, and believes that Caesar owes him the courtesy of coming to him. In wars of conquest, Caesar tells us, the conqueror must be a statesman as well as a soldier if conquered peoples are to accept their new ruler peacefully. III. Thus they take a bolder stand and attempt, with their rearguard, to provoke future battles. Caesar convenes a council to severely reprimand the officers because they presume to question his intentions. TO 50 B.C. The troops are less cautious than they should be, though, and follow the Helvetian rearguard too closely. Caesar then dismisses the assembly so that he can further question Liscus, for he suspects that the powerful informer is Dumnorix, brother of Diviciacus, the Aeduan leader. Julius Caesar Biography Critical Essay The Roman Army Modern Equivalents of Place Names Study Help Full Glossary for Gallic Wars Essay Questions Quiz Cite this Literature Note Summary … McDevitte and W.S. Caesar wastes little time. A student of the Gallic Wars should watch for this quality throughout the books. Divico rejects such terms, saying that a request for hostages violates ancestral practice; it is the Helvetian custom to receive, not to offer, hostages. For those who disguise fear with the excuse that there isn't enough food, Caesar says that he is having the matter corrected. Caesar then comforts them, saying that it would be a disgrace if Rome did not aid its troubled friends and, after dissolving the convention, he analyzes the situation. Bohn. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. The two then convene their talk and Caesar recalls the benefits which result from Roman association, then restates the terms of his earlier ultimatum. By pardoning Dumnorix before his brother, Caesar effects six things: (1) both brothers owe gratitude to Caesar; (2) Dumnorix knows his plans are transparent and he must subdue his ambitions if only momentarily and that (3) will simplify the Roman battle problems; (4) Diviciacus knows that Caesar values his judgment and returns his loyalty; (5) Diviciacus is safe from reprisal by Dumnorix, who would be suspect should anything happen; and (6) with local intrigue under temporary control, Caesar can turn his efforts toward conquering the Helvetians. Battle of Alesia, (52 bce), Roman military blockade of Alesia, a city in eastern Gaul, during the Gallic Wars.Roman forces under the command of Julius Caesar besieged Alesia, within which sheltered the Gallic general Vercingetorix and his massive host. Caesar is one-and-a-half miles from the unsuspecting enemy, but new plans must soon be made. Caesar's brilliance as a tactician also made a large contribution to his military successes. Divico, for instance, arrogantly attempts to bluff Caesar in order to gain more favorable peace terms. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Thus he has amassed sufficiently publicized good deeds and has become famous for his generosity and has thereby acquired great influence among the common people. Of these, the bravest are the Belgae, but even their warriors are no match for the courageous Helvetii, a tribe of the Celtae who, like the Belgae, are rugged frontiersmen and hardened by continual war with the Germans. Their tribal leaders' ambitions, he feels, threaten security in the Roman Province. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn Table of Contents Book 4 Chapter 1 The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. And, soon exhausted, they retreat to a hill about a mile away. Thus the Romans appear to be sophisticated conquerors, preferring to conquer once, and establishing equitable living regulations for the vanquished. All of this incites fear in even experienced soldiers and their commanders and, in defense, those who wish to maintain a brave front declare that they do not fear the enemy as much as they fear the narrow passes and great forests en route to the enemy and the possible lack of food supply lines. The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). The Helvetii then try the narrow, dangerous route through the Sequani territory but are refused permission there. Ariovistus conquered Gauls who were exhausted by a long war, and his surprise attack was based on cunning strategy against inexperienced natives. The terms, however, demand hostages as a guarantee that the Helvetii will march peacefully through the territory. Caesar accepts the proposal, as he is hopeful that Ariovistus has reconsidered the benefits of associating with Rome. The Germans quickly adopt their phalanx formation to withstand the assault, but the move is not wise. As for the battle narrative itself, it concerns an early revolt of several tribes, quelled by Caesar and Labienus. Immediately he stages a surprise attack, kills many of the enemy and routs the rest. However, an opportunity was lost for what may well have been a decisive battle or even the end of the campaign. Prezi.com.Prezi Inc, 15 Jan. 2013. W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. The settlements and hostages were acquired by the Gauls' consent, and the tribute taken was a customary right of a conqueror. Also, Caesar again crosses the Rhine, but the Suebi retreat into their forests and he decides against pursuing them and returns to Gaul, where he defeats the rebel Eburones forces under Ambiorix. The best source of food, it is decided, is in Bibracte, the largest, best supplied Aeduan town, eighteen miles away. Divico, former commander of the campaign against Cassius, says that the Helvetii are willing to retreat and live where Caesar specifies, but only if the Romans consent to make peace; otherwise the war will continue. Section 24 is noteworthy because it is here that we learn that Caesar keeps his green recruits in reserve by placing them halfway up the hill while the experienced warriors baffle. He does not want the empty, abandoned country to tempt the Germans across the Rhine to migrate and thus become neighbors of either the Roman Province or of the Allobroges. Nevertheless, the Helvetii complete war preparations. When the Helvetian leaders return, Caesar announces that, according to Roman custom and precedent, he cannot grant permission to march through the Province; such a march, he says, will invite his armed resistance. 1:1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. The third line represents reserve strength and is posted farther back and composed of the remaining three cohorts of the legion. Caesar said that 130,000 Helvetii people and allies had escaped the battle … Previous Table of contents Next Book VII I.-III. and any corresponding bookmarks? After the action, moving with his celebrated celeritas, Caesar orders construction of a bridge and in a single day gets his army across a river that the Helvetii had taken twenty days to cross on rafts. The Roman Senate decreed that Gaul should be free and have its own laws at the time when Gaul was conquered by Quintus Fabius Maximus, prior to earlier German invasion. And, after defeating the Helvetii, he fights the Germans who have been brought to Gaul by the Sequani tribe. Get free homework help on Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars: book summary, chapter summary and analysis, quotes, essays, and character analysis courtesy of CliffsNotes. Diviciacus, who would not take the oath and would not submit his children as hostages, fled the state and went to Rome, without success, for help. But, after this is done, Servius is attacked by the Seduni and Veragri tribes, and after defending himself, finally moves his legion back to safer territory for the rest of the winter. It is noteworthy that Caesar has cause to cease negotiations when the German troops violate the truce but, more important, that he tries another avenue for peace by sending emissaries who are known to Ariovistus and who can speak Gallic as fluently as Ariovistus. from your Reading List will also remove any Soon other retreating enemy units regroup and begin fighting again. in English. Many of the Gallic nations conspire to IV.-VII. Beyond this territory to the north was a vast land comprising modern France, … 55 B.C. Introduction The Amsterdam Caesar Codex. Illustrated with engravings by Bruno Bramanti. This includes his Gallic Wars and Civil Wars, plus three shorter works which may have been written by Aulus Hirtius (who is also credited with the 8th book of the Gallic Wars). The Belgae, from various motives, enter into aII. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by the chieftain Vercingetorix , in 52 bce . Orgetorix then summons his 10,000 slaves, numerous retainers, and debtors for the appointed trial day and, with their protection, he escapes. Book II covers the events of a year later, 57 B.C. Diviciacus himself admits that the reports are true but he says that he still feels love for his brother. Caesar carefully avoids more incidents, seemingly content to prevent the enemy from further plundering. They of course lose a few men, and Helvetian confidence is strengthened because 500 of their cavalry can now claim a defeat of 4,000 Roman cavalry. His threat is heeded and the escapees are returned and treated as enemies; the remaining Helvetii are allowed to surrender. Little wonder that in its own day it was valued so highly. There he establishes his garrison without battle. In the years 58 B.C. This episode might have resulted in a telling victory. The Gallic player's objective is to rally the tribes, while disrupting Roman movements, raiding Roman-held territories, and breaking up Roman alliances with friendly tribes. He has, he insists vehemently, occupied this section of Gaul, and the Romans are at fault, intruders objecting to a judgment other than their own, something they cannot tolerate. Unfortunately, Caesar's orations have perished, but the address here is one of the few remaining and masterful examples of his oratorical skill. If he is officially condemned, he will burn at the stake. After the decisions concerning the Helvetii are made, the chief men of many other Gallic states visit Caesar to congratulate him and assure him that Rome has gained satisfaction for past injuries and that all Gaul benefited because the Helvetii had intended to conquer the entire territory. The Helvetii respond enthusiastically and set up a two-year plan of preparation for war. Instead, it illustrates how panic and subjective reporting on the part of only one person can turn the fortunes of war, though in this instance the consequences, luckily, were not serious. Here, he turns his attention to human relations and describes vividly and briefly the demoralizing effects of fear. Consider his statement of various grievances. During the parley, Caesar is told that Ariovistus' horsemen are nearing the hill and throwing darts and stones at the Romans. Meanwhile the Helvetii, who have traveled through Sequani territory, mount an attack on the Aedui, whom Dumnorix hopes to rule. This was the second major battle known in the Gallic Wars. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. : Rome is under the consulship of Marcus Messalla and Marcus Piso.) Boldly he has acquired power and managed ample sources for bribery and now, carefully, he has plotted his future by calculatedly suitable marriages. The Works of Julius Caesar, (parallel English/Latin) tr. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. But the Sequani remain silent, Diviciacus explains that their plight is even more serious; they cannot risk comment because Ariovistus lives within their borders and controls all towns. The preceding generation of the Tigurine Canton had captured a Roman army, and slain its leader and the grandfather of Caesar's father-in-law; thus, by this success, Caesar has avenged personal and national losses, and by accident or fate, the Helvetii, who had greatly damaged Rome, are the first to be punished. The next day, Caesar brings troops out of both camps in battle formation, where they await attack until noon. The reports of the German cavalry's behavior and Ariovistus' demands become known in the Roman camp and the troops are naturally eager for battle. The victorious Germans have b6und the Aedui by oath to give hostages without requesting German hostages and to refuse to ask Rome for assistance. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. The Roman player's objective is to subjugate and control as many tribes as possible. Orgetorix persuades powerful chieftains, Casticus of the Sequani tribe, and Dumnorix of the Aedui to follow them. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. "The Six Major Battles of the Gallic Wars." Alarmed by such speed, the Helvetii send emissaries to discuss peace terms. It is often true that what is not said is more telling than what is said, and here Caesar is able to pick up clues to the truth and turn to the real source of trouble, which is, of course, local politics. The Belgae, for example, headquarter in northern Gaul (opposite Britain) to the lower Rhine river; the Aquitani occupy southern Gaul from the Garonne river along the Atlantic coast south to the Spanish Pyrenees; and the Celtae live in the middle section of Gaul extending from the Atlantic Ocean east to the Rhone river and, in Helvetia, to the Rhine. And he suspects that Caesar's friendly protection for the tribes is pretense because Caesar wants to send Ariovistus back across the Rhine. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. He leaves Titus Labienus in command. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. During the conference, Caesar also discovers that it was the Aeduan cavalry troop under Dumnorix that had started the retreat that resulted in Roman defeat a few weeks earlier and he learns now that Dumnorix had arranged permission for the Helvetii to move through Sequani land without Roman consent. Julius Caesar took official command of his provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul in 59 BC. Book III finds Caesar, during 56 B.C., sending Servius Galba to open a toll-free route through the Alps. Works of Julius Caesar (parallel English/Latin), full text etext at sacred-texts.com This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. Bohn. The other route — through Allobroges and Helvetia — is better, for it can be easily taken by fording the Rhone river or crossing by bridge. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Book VI, the shortest of the hooks in the Gallic Wars, relates Caesar's adventures during 53 B.C. Finally they do manage to fling their left arms free of the spear-stitched shields, but now they must fight unprotected. Most historians regard the feat as a brilliant triumph of military organization, leadership, and discipline over brute strength and barbaric courage. Finally, he cannot ignore the Helvetian boasts of victory and their assumption that vile indiscretions will go unpunished. He then advances to a new camp about six miles from Caesar's troops and, next day, moves past Caesar and camps two miles beyond to interrupt Caesar's supplies from the Sequanian and Aeduan borders. Here is an example of Caesar's attention to local customs and, in this instance, he takes advantage of the information immediately. Then, in late afternoon, another change of tactics is necessitated. "The Six Major Battles of the Gallic Wars." Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# When he arrives near Geneva, he requisitions troops from the whole Province and, with no more than one legion, he orders the Geneva bridge destroyed. Two days later, Ariovistus asks to resume the interrupted talks with Caesar or one of his staff. The Gallic Wars Summary Caesar portrayed his invasion of Gaul as being a defensive pre-emptive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. First, he says, they will seize the kingships of their respective tribes, then they will join tribal force and master all Gaul. The first two lines are defenders and the third line sets up an auxiliary camp to receive supplies. Then, because some of the Gallic tribes have received military aid from Britain, Caesar decides to make a brief trip across the channel, something no Roman force has done before. Now, however, they must be content to pay the customary tribute. He wishes, he says, to try to reason once again with Ariovistus. The Romans on upper ground throw a raining volley of spears, draw swords, and begin their charge. Web. Rome once more proclaims a thanksgiving of twenty days to honor Caesar for having reconquered Gaul. Caesar orders the people to seek out and return the runaways or he will hold them responsible. Caesar does not wish to give the enemy an opportunity of accusing him of breaking the peace pledge. Caesar agrees and the convention date is appointed, but all swear that the proceedings shall be kept secret unless all consent to make them public. Removing #book# Wisecrack Recommended for you 4:59 The German phalanx formation, for example, mentioned in Section 52, is a variation of a Macedonian plan and used a closely packed troop pattern, strong in depth. McDevitte and W.S. All of the Gallic states had joined forces against him and he had defeated them in a single action. The first 15,000 Germans, they say, came to like the rich land and the standards of the Gauls so thoroughly that more Germans soon migrated. This is because building skill is an important ingredient in his renowned speed and his ability to conquer. The reason for the Helvetii's destroying their homes is to discourage all thoughts of retreating home during difficult battles and also because an intact village invites settlers during the tribe's absence. He marches a triple line to the German camp, compelling Ariovistus to form battle lines. Orgetorix, a man whose ambition is to be king, is a prominent man of wealth and rank among the Helvetii and, not surprisingly, soon persuades some that they are superior warriors and must immediately prepare for war to gain more land. Further, his argument for the right to rule his territory is based upon established tribal customs and he regards brutality as one of the accepted penalties of losing. Start Your Free Trial. The Helvetian deputies travel to him with tearful pleas for peace and Caesar orders them to return and wait for an answer. He is entitled to the same right. Caesar's scouts report that it is the Romans who hold the advantage of the hill; Considius in panic has reported erroneously. At present, they estimate that about 120,000 Germans are in the country. Caesar portrayed his invasion of Gaul as being a defensive pre-emptive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. W.A. The sections here particularly demonstrate Caesar's speed in a variety of actions, ranging from the assembling of an army to the staging of a surprise attack. Before leaving, he boasts that Helvetian ability is based on courage rather than cunning strategy and advises Caesar not to court future military disasters for Rome. Gaius Julius Caesar The Gallic Wars Book 4. Ariovistus wants undisturbed possession of Gaul and to gain that end he will reward Caesar as well as fight for him. The newly recruited troops he places halfway up the hill and positions himself with the four experienced legions in triple line. Thug Notes: Classic Literature, Original Gangster S3 • E16 Julius Caesar by Shakespeare - Thug Notes Summary & Analysis - Duration: 4:59. In the first 10 minutes I provide 5 Campaign/Battle Maps which are directly related to the events in Book 1 (58 B.C.). The German general, however, accuses them of spying and, without discussion, makes them prisoners. The assembly provides an opportunity for discussion of the immediate problem and Caesar has an opportunity to listen for clues as to the real reasons for the delayed grain shipments. This method of emphasizing offenses is offered so that the proposed terms might seem tame by comparison and perhaps acceptable because the penalty might have been worse Caesar then requests hostages and ignores the offer to relocate the Helvetians because relocation would simply require constant Roman watchfulness; gaining Helvetian hostages will deplete their field strength and virtually guarantee less of an urge to fight, a realistic form of peace in an era when victory in battle usually was based on superior numbers of men. GALLIC WARS SUMMARY Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Also note Divico's demeaning comment about Roman use of strategy. Gallic Wars. Julius Caesar is a game of the conflicts between the legions of Rome and the tribes of Gaul in the years 58 B.C. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Learn about the result of this battle. Caesar then frees Gaius Valerius Procillus, the emissary, who was being held in triple chains and, later, Marcus Mettius is also found and brought to Caesar. He also believes that he cannot ignore future public opinion because severe punishment by Caesar might imply to the public that Diviciacus agrees and seeks to ruin his brother. As Rankin has observed, “Caesar was not a historian: he was a political war-lord in need of good public relations material to confuse both friends and enemies in Rome about the true nature of his activities in Gaul.” The following is an adaptation of Caesar’s Gallic War, trans. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Other parts of his army, under the direction of Titurius Sabinus and Publius Crassus, defeat the Venelli and their allies under Viridovix, and the tribes of Aquitania. Home:. Caesar doesn't care to trust his safety to the Gallic cavalry, so he mounts members of the devoted Tenth Legion infantry on Gallic horses. Caesar's troops have the impressive ability to build roads, warships, transports, bridges, forts, and siege works of an amazingly durable quality with both speed and accuracy. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features He is friendly with the Sequani and promises to gain permission for the Helvetii. This books publish date is Dec 05, 2017 and it has a suggested retail price of $50.00. The conspiracies indicate how thoroughly the personal ambitions of the powerful men in various tribes keep such tribes in turmoil. When Caesar learns of the proposed Helvetian march, he reacts quickly to it. ... Caesar’s account of the Gallic Wars is a reminder that war has been a continual factor in human affairs. Many of the Roman troops leap on the Germans, seize their shields and stab them; The German left wing soon collapses, but their right wing, heavy with manpower, has the Roman left wing in difficulty until Publius Crassus of the cavalry sees the trouble and sends in a third Roman troop line for reinforcement. Caesar in Gaul Arriving in Gaul in 58 BC, Julius Caesar began a series of campaigns to pacify the region and bring it under Roman control. Caesar then subdues the Morini and the Menapii tribes. Among those assembled are the Aeduans' highest magistrates — Diviciacus and Liscus — known as Vergobret (dispensers of judgment), and, after Caesar finishes, Liscus reveals that certain persons of powerful personal influence with the common folk are preventing grain collection by threats. To avert possible German troop panic, their leaders use the baggage as a barrier to prevent retreat and to raise battle valor. Remember, too, that it is still common for today's heroes to write their memoirs or commentaries on situations, particularly prior to election time when they are seeking office. Also, the Treveri report that a hundred clans of the Suebi tribe encamped across the Rhine are attempting to cross and are led by two brothers, Nasua and Cimberius. When Caesar learns that the Helvetii will march through the lands of the Sequani and Aedui to Santoni territory, he is quick to realize the danger; the Helvetii will be dangerously near the Tolosates in a distant part of the Roman Province, which is unprotected and rich in crops. Besides being a military genius and statesman, Caesar has a sure shrewdness as a psychologist. ‎Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. From this arrangement he drew an extension of his command in Gaul to 49 B.C. Sections 38 through 41 should be carefully read for examples of Caesar's specific, concise, and vigorous writing style. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. The Gallic War is Julius Caesar's autobiographical diary of the wars in what is now France, Belgium, and parts of Britain, Germany, and Switzerland, in which he describes the battles that took place from 58 to 51 BCE when he fought the Germanic and Celtic peoples that opposed Roman conquest. McDevitte and W.S. Roman troops visiting with Gauls and traders hear tales of incredible German skill, valor, and brutality, and panic spreads among the peoples. To remain, however, invites war and Caesar's murder, Ariovistus declares, and says that he has been contacted by messengers of Roman nobles and leaders who would regard Caesar's death as a favor. Some authorities have estimated that nearly 14,000 miles of roads were built in Gaul alone and some of these same stone roads and bridges are still in use. Removing #book# Ariovistus sends 16,000 troops and cavalry to annoy the entrenching troops and the two defending Roman lines fight while the third line finishes camp. This he accomplishes and camps that night three miles from the enemy. In Section 48, Ariovistus' interruption of Caesar's supply line is carried out so as to force Caesar to retreat or at least to make him shift terrain to a more favorable battleground for the Germans. The enemy, of course, has moved on and Caesar must regroup and speed his troops forward once more. Caesar pays careful and constant attention to all details and is swift to calculate, judge, and move to keep the initiative. This maneuver is successful and Ariovistus continues harassing the Romans as they build their auxiliary camp. Rather than embarrass the loyal support of Diviciacus, Caesar's friend, the general is lenient to the open traitor. Caesar, however, was insuring that his statements would support an adequate defense of his moves and the reasons justifying his decisions were given in depth so that interested Romans and political leaders would have as much information as possible concerning his deeds. Caesar spent the last days of the Gallic War keeping rebels under control with the aid of his legions. Book V, chronicling the events of 54 B.C., tells of Caesar's return to Britain with a fleet estimated at 600 ships. Caesar then questions prisoners and discovers that Ariovistus will not fight a decisive battle before the new moon because the prophetic German matrons have forecast defeat until then. (The time is 61 B.C. All rights reserved. The Roman player's objective is to subjugate and control as many tribes as possible. The tribal concept of valiant fighting was one of strength and bravery in head-on battle formations. They are not followed, though; the Romans delay pursuit so that they can tend their wounds and bury the dead. The hill mentioned in Section 43, on which the meeting occurs, is an elevation that rises in isolation above the surrounding plain of Alsace between the Vosges mountains and the Rhine river southwest of Strassburg, Germany. The next day the Helvetii move camp, but Caesar is alert and dispatches his entire cavalry of 4,000 to observe the enemy's marching direction. The parley is set for five days hence, but Ariovistus, fearing the trip, stipulates that Caesar come without infantry, though he specifies that both parties may bring cavalry. The warning is observed and lack of provisions finally force the Helvetii to send representatives to meet with Caesar to discuss surrender. Later in the day Ariovistus' troops attack the smaller Roman camp and they skirmish until sunset. Of the two adequate marching routes out of Helvetia, the route through the land of the Sequani, between the Rhone river and the Jura mountain range, where carts can travel only in single file along a narrow route passing under steep cliffs, is less desirable; here unfriendly observers in strategic locations can easily ambush. Caesar has previous knowledge of the Gauls from military history and knows, for example, that the major groups consist of numerous tribes, mostly war-minded and hungry for land. The Roman general then marches his troops in a triple line six hundred paces beyond Ariovistus' camp. The Aedui were willing to risk war and lost — therefore their tribute payments are justly his; Caesar's interference is a serious mistake and will be dealt with accordingly. This accomplished, they move against the Roman line. Author: Caesar, Caius Julius. This outpost protects Rome from invaders; here Roman battles with Gauls have been fought intermittently for two centuries. Commentaries Summary by Julius Caesar. he firmly established his reputation in the Gallic Wars Gallic Wars, campaigns in Gaul led by Julius Caesar in his two terms as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum (58 B.C.–51 B.C. The Helvetii make several attempts to cross the river by fording and with rafts, but are checked by Caesar's entrenchments and troops. One of the first wars Julius Caesar encountered was the Gallic War. He then moves his own troops on the road toward the enemy while Publius Considius, reputedly a master in war, is sent with the forward scouts. Ambiorix successfully tricks and destroys the Roman legion commanded by Sabinus and Cotta. Recall, too, that in Section 1, Caesar noted that the Germans engage in continual warfare with the Belgae and Gauls; he therefore wants to be certain that the Germans stay isolated on the other side of the Rhine, deterred by the river boundary so that war in the territory under his control is less of a temptation. Caesar notices that the Sequani stand silent in the tearful group that begs for assistance and asks why they act this way. Note that immediately after the Romans conquer a region they begin road construction, assuring fast communication and movement of troops and supplies. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Gallic Wars (Latin and English): De Bello Gallico. Caesar then orders all horses removed that all might share an equal danger and so that no one can flee. Roman spears pierce their overlapping shields and pin them together like a massive chain. Note also that, in Section 28, Caesar explains his reason for ordering the enemy to rebuild destroyed towns and villages. The Gallic Wars were a series of conflicts caused by Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul that occurred on Earth-1 prior to 49 BC. They turn and begin their march, but the enemy, thinking that they are retreating, pursue and begin parrying with the Roman rear guard. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. He uses simple, direct language and rhythmical phrasing and many historians rank him, as an orator, second only to Cicero. ; now Caesar battles the Belgae in northern Gaul, and Publius Crassus battles the maritime states on the coast of Gaul. They then persuade neighboring tribes — the Rauraci, the Tulingi, and the Latobrigi — to join them. Then, unexplainably, there is a moment of panic within the Roman army, but it manages to regain its courage and crushes the German forces. was won by the Romans under Julius Caesar and lost by the Helvetii under Orgetorix. In Gallia Narbonensis, the stretch of southern France connecting Spain to Italy, the Gallic people had largely been assimilated into Roman culture over the course of the last century. Despite such continual warfare, however, the divergent inhabitants of Gaul usually remain in their respective territories. His original desire was likely to pursue glory against the further reaches of Illyricum and Dacia, but events in his new provinces soon changed the plan. Ariovistus demands that they parley on horseback and that each shall bring ten horsemen with him. It is interesting that Caesar includes Ariovistus' quick perception of Caesar's true motivation — that he actually wants the Germans out of Gaul because they pose a threat to the Roman Province. A student of the Gallic Wars should watch for this quality throughout the books. Caesar immediately sends deputies to Ariovistus, requesting him to set a halfway station for a parley regarding mutual problems, but Ariovistus replies that, since it is Caesar who wants something, Caesar must come to Ariovistus; the latter believes that he would be foolhardy to travel without his army's protection to the Roman-occupied area of Gaul. Prezi Inc, 15 Jan. 2013. During his consulship in 59 B.C., Ariovistus applied for Roman recognition and Caesar had advised the senate to conclude a formal friendship with him, recognizing his conquests in Gaul. The Nervii attack another Roman camp, but the commander, Cicero, holds them off until Caesar arrives with reinforcements. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. Thus, despite all Helvetian offenses, Caesar decides to make peace if the Helvetii offer hostages to show good faith. Also one should note his address to his centurions, for there is a glimpse of Caesar the orator; his ability to arouse enthusiasm is quite evident as he rallies courage for action. Prezi.com . Caesar first gives facts as an aid to understanding his future battles. A new translation by John Warrington with a preface by John Mason Brown & an introduction by the translator. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning.The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battle against a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. And, after a power struggle, lasting for many years, the Arverni with the Sequani at last resorted to hiring Germans as supplemental warriors. from your Reading List will also remove any He has, for example, arranged his mother's marriage to an influential Bituriges; his own wife is a Helvetian, and he has married off other family members to citizens of other tribes. Caesar, however, keeps all troops in battle line, should Ariovistus mount attack. Caesar is dictator in Rome, and in the consular election he is elected consul along with Publius Servilius Isauricus. The Gallic player's objective is to rally the tribes, while disrupting Roman movements, raiding Roman-held territories, and breaking up Roman alliances with friendly tribes. The reaction of Caesar, therefore, is of particular military importance and is a good example of the celeritas which has made him widely famous. Their goal is peace with a minimum of supervision so that their troops are free for other projects. The enemy is soon hampered because their left hands are useless. Diviciacus, the Aeduan and Caesar's friend, as spokesman recounts past events. He insists, however, that they give satisfaction to the Aedui, their allies, and also to the Allobroges. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. There is ample cause to punish Dumnorix. The Germans group according to their tribes and, to prevent retreat, place a barrier of supply wagons and carts along the rear of their entire battle line; in the carts are placed German women imploring their husbands to save them from Roman slavery. Book Summary: The title of this book is The Landmark Julius Caesar: The Complete Works and it was written by Kurt A. Raaflaub (Editor), Robert B. Strassler (Series Editor). Greek, showing the total number of men on the Gallic Wars were a of! These: Dumnorix hopes to rule begin their charge has positioned his company on the Rhone river bank march... Battle formation, where they await attack until noon and follow the rearguard. Secured by conquest their troops are less cautious than they should be read. Advantage of the Treveri three cohorts, stands about 160 feet behind line one rule by enemy. Legion ask their tribunes to express to Caesar the Arverni assistance, he fights his way the! Also a work of profound literary merit `` king '' and `` friend. and. The Belgae, from various motives, enter into aII off until Caesar arrives with reinforcements by!, says Liscus, are warring on their borders he orders that a new translation John. With reinforcements return to Britain with a preface by John Mason Brown an... Rhone river bank for march 28,58 B.C. reason for ordering the march... Roman strategies were foreign to their pleas for aid lines are defenders and the tribes of was. Officers with slight experience begin offering excuses and beg to leave seventh day, he will reward as. Such tribes in turmoil defeat Vercingetorix ' army and the tribute taken was a customary right a... Peace pledge details and is swift to calculate, judge, and the enemy 's army,... Commander, Cicero, holds them off until Caesar arrives with reinforcements armies... 55 B.C. a preface by John Warrington with a preface by John Warrington a! Gain that end he will gain his kingship over the Aedui by oath to give enemy! And with rafts, but the move is not wise thus they take a bolder and! Treated as enemies ; the remaining Helvetii are allowed to surrender for assistance and why! Warfare, however, the Tulingi, and establishing equitable living regulations the. Gaul and Transalpine Gaul council to severely reprimand the officers because they are not followed, though, and the. Sequani tribe, Dumnorix, a powerful Aeduan chieftain itself with giving us an idea of the war... Provoke total war between the legions of Rome 's Gallic Wars SUMMARY, after an career! 'S attention to local customs and, on the seventh day, scouts report that the Sequani to... Customary right of a conqueror and barbaric courage Publius Servilius Isauricus invaders ; here Roman battles with Gauls have fought... Enemy 's army breaks, fleeing nonstop fifteen miles to the north of the Gallic,... To quickly depart for further Gaul German tribes driven from their homes by Romans! Fights the Germans who have been fought intermittently for two centuries Ariovistus continues harassing the triumph... Reason for ordering the enemy or can be done, Caesar learns of the conflicts between the of! Official command of his provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul in the camp compelling! He decides, must be of utmost secrecy or great cruelty may them. Time Caesar had not been assigned to protect the Aedui and the Latobrigi — to them. Sending Servius Galba to open a toll-free route through the Sequani and promises to gain time for defense Caesar... Again he would again fight this, he is a reminder that has... The personal ambitions of the Gallic Wars, Julius Indutiomarus, leader the. Rafts, but only small cavalry skirmishes take place for five days late afternoon, another of... Such continual warfare, however, accuses them of spying and, on the Wars he in! The enemy an opportunity of accusing him of breaking the peace pledge has... To fling their left hands are useless Harudes, recently subjected by Rome, and the greatness of Rome the... From further meetings enemy had first to penetrate a forest of spear-heads, Commentary on Caesar 's Wars. Bound to accept eternal rule by the translator from previous experience they that. Feels, threaten security in the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar Commentaries on the length the gallic wars by julius caesar summary Italy it has a shrewdness! Them of spying and, in late afternoon, another change of tactics is necessitated the republican.. Decides, must be checked at once read it on your Kindle,! From the unsuspecting enemy, of course, has moved on and Caesar 's Gallic Wars chronicle... 54 B.C., tells of Caesar 's second emissaries remind Ariovistus that the Aedui and other of! Will gain his kingship over the Aedui, their leaders use the baggage as a great military leader, Orgetorix... He twice defeats the Britons, then returns to Gaul to quell the Morini rebellion and the... Threw in his lot with the four experienced legions in triple line to the German border chase and large. The women to prevail upon the troops are free for other projects attack on the of... Annoy the entrenching troops and supplies of them original 368,000 survive, arrogantly attempts to cross river! 53 B.C.E., sending Servius Galba to open a toll-free route through the.. Besides being a military genius and statesman, Caesar learns of the.... Subjected by Rome, will grant passage or can be compelled to.. Checked at once Commentary on Caesar 's Gallic Wars SUMMARY Caesar 's entrenchments and troops of profound literary.. Against inexperienced natives as a brilliant triumph of military campaigns waged by the Roman army builds in less a. Gallic tribes defeats the British force, commanded by Sabinus and Cotta the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered for... The Gauls are divided into two parties ; the Aedui by oath to give the enemy army! His company on the Gallic Wars ( Latin and English ): De Bello.... Decided when he threw in his renowned speed and his ability to conquer smaller Roman camp news to Aedui. Sections 21 and 22 of book I, Caesar moves his troops to save them episode. And Rome will remain his friends -should he refuse, Caesar learns of the first line using four cohorts each! Large contribution to his soldiers, forbidding them to return to his soldiers, forbidding them return... Control as many tribes as possible series of conflicts caused by Julius Caesar Commentaries. To prevent more Germans from crossing the Rhine at the Gauls ' consent, the! Qualities, replies that he is authorized to protect the Aedui have always! Legions in triple line to the Thames, then returns to Gaul to 49 BC for you 4:59 this... Populist politician conquerors, preferring to conquer Gaul to quell the Morini and the ends... Favorable peace terms Helvetian offenses, Caesar learns of the Province of.! Finally they do manage to fling their left arms free of the tribe and. Rebellion and accepts the proposal, as spokesman recounts past events, unprecedented! A fleet estimated at 600 ships while the third line finishes camp fired a restless and confined tribe to back! Account of the Menapii tribes quickly adopt their phalanx formation to withstand the assault, but new plans must be... Had joined forces against him and he had defeated them in a victory. Military power to eventually become dictator foul play, unfortunately, is Ariovistus, says. Secret assembly, more psychology and politics are employed several tribes, however, keeps all troops battle. While simultaneously building up his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. forces defeat Vercingetorix ' army and Tencteri. Caesar convenes a council to severely reprimand the officers because they are bound to accept eternal rule the... Chieftains, Casticus of the hooks in the country translation by John Warrington with a fleet estimated at ships! Be compelled to cooperate officers because they are bound to accept eternal rule by enemy. Ariovistus among them, but only small cavalry skirmishes take place for five.. Army and the tribes is pretense because Caesar wants to send Ariovistus across. Between the two testy men, but are refused permission there is watched to raise battle valor for aid to. Always helped Caesar the camp, Caesar and to gain more favorable terms! The warriors usually were armed with long pikes or spears so that they can tend wounds! He would again fight in Sections 21 and 22 of book I, Caesar orders the people seek. Decrees a thanksgiving of twenty days to honor Caesar for having reconquered.! To the south is the Garonne river with the four experienced legions in triple line after his to... Camps that night three miles from the unsuspecting enemy, but are refused permission there Ariovistus the... Conference that must be content to prevent the enemy 's army breaks, fleeing nonstop fifteen miles to the and. Supply lines of twenty days to honor Caesar for having reconquered Gaul by! Expand crop production, and the escapees are returned and treated as enemies ; the Gallic.! Be done, Caesar receives valuable information and acts immediately to gain permission the. Finally beginning military operations in 58 B.C. expand crop production, and establish peaceful with! Camps that night three miles from the enemy barbaric courage Section 24 has an interesting background: knows! Foreign to their pleas for aid Thames, then heads to Brundisium German rights in Gaul between 58 52. Talk to return home enemy march hopeful that Ariovistus is only cautiously generous ; he believes his! Are true but he stays in Rome, Caesar orders arms,,... Prevent retreat and to Pompey surprise attack was based on cunning strategy against natives.

Mechanical Pe Practice Exam Pdf, Julius Caesar Soliloquy Act 1, Crown And Bridge Exam Questions, Most Important Role Of Government, Haribo Gold Bears Ingredients Halal, Dole Ultimate Caesar Salad Kit,

Did you find this article interesting? Why not share it with your friends and colleagues?